This is the result of its mineral composition. 5. Steel-slag is a by-product of the steelmaking process, which is formed when iron and/or scrap metals are melted together with fluxes such as lime and dolomite under oxidising conditions by injecting large amount of air or oxygen. Roads constructed using LD slag demonstrate reduced rutting. Two types of steel slag - a basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) slag and an EAF ladle (EAF(L)) slag - and mixtures of steel slag and Class-C fly ash were considered in this research. 6. The worldwide average recovery rate for slag varies from over 80% for steelmaking slag to nearly 100% for ironmaking slag. After 100 cycles, strength increased by 1.04% and weight lost was 0.12% based on concrete made with energy-saving steel-slag cement. The steel slag boulders were collected from a local steel manufacturing company. The feasibility of utilizing of Steel Slag and Local soil in construction of flexible pavement with variation of Percentage in soil. The general types of steel slag are BOF (basic oxygen furnace), EAF (electric arc furnace), and SM (Siemens-Martin Furnace) slag produced in the respective furnaces. EUROREC SRL Product Description:We are dealing in Steel slag. d. Reflective light, 250X - Leaf-like RO-phase. Slag has a greater PSV (Polished Stone Value): i.e., greater resistance to wear. They are made up by 90% oxides, therefore calcium oxide (CaO) and silica (SiO2) are their primary components. The steel slag boulders were collected from a local steel manufacturing company. Stein supplies the two basic types of slag used today: Blast Furnace Slag and Steel Slag. 5. LD slag has a series of advantages over natural rock in the field of road construction. Legal Status of Slags, European Slag Association (Euroslag), pp. Given that about 5GJ of energy is needed to produce 1t of clinker, manufacturing 1t of such a cement consumes only about 0.75-1.5GJ of energy. Steel-slag cement also exhibits high resistance to abrasion and an application in road construction verified its very good performances, without major maintenance during a 20-year service. Slags are principally divided into blast furnace slag and metallurgical slag. Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. In this work, the CO2-trapping characteristics of two types of steel slag, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag and electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag, were experimentally investigated. Effect of ladle slag on inclusion types in alloyed tool steel Effect of slag composition on inclusion composition Effect of the contact nature between the gunning materials and steel on the interactions at the interface Electro slag in the fusion line after welding Element mapping of a complex oxy-sulfide inclusion in steel This production was distributed among a series of different slag types: blast furnace slag, LD slag, electric arc furnace slag, AOD slag, ladle furnace slag and slag from desulphurisation. Iron and steel slag refers to the type of metal manufacturing slag that is generated during the process of manufacturing iron and steel products. Six different types of iron and steel slag supplied by ASA members (Table 2) were tested under laboratory conditions as a stormwater treatment medium. Figure 2: SEM image showing the dense micro-structure of energy-saving steel-slag cement paste after hydration for 90 days, 1000X. Steel slag is a byproduct from steel making industry [1] characterized by variable chemical components and low cementitious properties. To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar. Types include special steel-slag, ordinary steel-slag, electric arc furnace slag, open-hearth slag and converter slag as well as other types such as early slag and late slag. steel slag were identified. Slag/metal reactions are very important in the production of clean metals (eg. Figure 1 shows some optical microscopic pictures of steel-slag. 6. Steel slag is a kind of alkaline mixture and considered to be a potential CO2 adsorbent. After solidification, the cooling can be accelerated by water sprays which produce cracking, and facilitate digging of the slag. Air-cooled iron slag and steel slag are used primarily as aggregates in concrete (air-cooled iron slag only); asphaltic paving, fill, and road bases; both slag types also can be used as a feed for cement kilns. Steel Slag BOF slag, commonly known as steel slag is another waste from Iron & S teel Industry. Blast furnace. The slag produced in this plant normally cools in the air, but the mineralogical composition can be adjusted by appropriate cooling methods in order to fulfill … About 2% of these are Refractory, 0% are Steel Scrap, and 8% are Other Metals & Metal Products. Steel slag can also replace granulated blast furnace slag up to 10% in the manufacture of Portland Slag Cement. provide values only on their total sales of a slag type, not value by type of use. Concrete permeability tests were conducted (start permeating pressure 1.73 MPa, compared to 1.0MPa for OPC) as well as hydration heat (28.6kCal/kg at three days, compared to 60kCal/kg for Portland dam cement and 45Kcal/kg for slag dam cement). For steels containing >1% Al this reaction makes the steels virtually un-castable (by CC). Chemically, steel-slag, BFS and OPC clinker all fall into the system of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (See Table 1). Although steelmaking slag (GGBFS). Compressive strength tests were performed on samples containing slag ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 per cent and cement contents of concrete 200, 300 and 350 kg/m3. used in this study. types of steel slag were used as absorbing bed for various concentrations of Pb2+ ions in the form of lead chloride, and the concentrations of lead ions were measured in the effluent by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cement plants use various kinds of alternative fuels such as waste tyres, woodchips, plastic, oily rags and coke and make use of alternative raw materials, such as including various industrial wastes and spent catalysts. Slag has a greater PSV (Polished Stone Value): i.e., greater resistance to wear. Figure 2 shows a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the cement paste, indicating its dense micro-structure. Slag - Wikipedia. Reusing the co-products of the steel industry, BlueScope Steel. In the main, the material is unrecovered except for small amounts used as aggregates and fluxes. * Steel slag, a by-product of steel making, is produced during the separation of the molten steel from impurities in steel-making furnaces. types of iron and steel slag, blast furnace slag consisting mainly of lime and silica and steel-making slag containing large proportions of iron oxide and other metallic compounds. Energy use in the steel industry report, worldsteel, 2014. Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. Types include special steel-slag, ordinary steel-slag, electric arc furnace slag, open-hearth slag and converter slag as well as other types such as early slag and late slag. types of steel slag were used as absorbing bed for various concentrations of Pb2+ ions in the form of lead chloride, and the concentrations of lead ions were measured in the effluent by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blast furnace slag is recovered by melting,separation from blast furnace that produce molten pig iron. de-S and de-P) but they can sometimes produce unwanted reactions (eg Equn 1 ie, SiO2 slag +Al= Si +Al2O3 slag) in continuous casting (CC). ), and slag … The Carbstone process was initially developed to transform non-hydraulic steel slags [stainless steel (SS) slag and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slags] in high-quality construction materials. Calcium sulfate (gypsum) and calcium chloride, however, are … These processes can occur in different types of furnaces such as basic oxygen furnace or electric arc furnace [ 5 ]. Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. Greater hardness. Producing 1t of clinker emits about 1t of GHG. Steel slag is the result of industrial processes in which iron mineral is reduced, generating products as pig iron (iron with a high proportion of carbon) and steel. According to methods for cooling molten steel slag, steel slag is classified into five types: natural air-cooling steel slag, water-spray steel slag, water-quenching steel slag, air-quenching steel slag, and shallow box chilling steel slag [47,48]. coal ash, blast furnace slag, steel slag aggregate. Alibaba.com offers 1,163 steel slag prices products. The basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slags (fraction 0–3 mm) were provided by ArcelorMittal Gent (Gent, Belgium). In this work, the CO 2-trapping characteristics of two types of steel slag, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag and electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag, were experimentally investigated.Generally, the higher the temperature, the larger the Ca use of slag. © 2020 Pro Global Media Ltd. All rights reserved. ), in the primary steelmaking processes (basic oxygen furnace, electric arc furnace, and induction furnace), slag formed during the secondary refining processes (this slag is sometimes called ?secondary refining slag? The consequences: less wear and longer road lifetimes. American Journal of Construction and Building Materials 2017; 2(1): 26-32 27 of raw steel production) is a valuable scrap, [5]. Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. INTRODUCTION The iron and steel slag that is generated as a by product of iron and steel manufacturing processes can be broadly categorised as blast furnace slag and steel making slag. The others are inert. Specific knowledge of the behavior of mixtures with steel slag in relation to certain properties needs to be improved. Usually alkalinity (R = CaO/SiO2 or R= CaO/(SiO2+P2O5)) is used to characterise a steel-slag, which affects its mineralogical characteristics (Table 2). Legal Status of Slags, European Slag Association (Euroslag), pp. (Fe,Mn,Mg)O), free MgO and free CaO are the main minerals in steel-slag. There are different types of steel slag, depending on the type of production process, i.e., type of furnaces used in production, and the cooling process. This saves 70-85% of virgin natural resources and cuts GHG emissions by 70-85% (assuming a raw meal factor of 1.54 and clinker factor of 0.90). There are two types of iron and steel slag, blast furnace slag consisting mainly of lime and silica and steel- making slag containing large proportions of iron oxide and other metallic compounds. c. Plain light, 250X A pile of RO-phase and tabular C3S. Both slags were milled [lab ball mill (RETSCH S100) or industrial Loesche mill (vertical mill type LM 15.2M)] and sieved into different particle size fractions before being used in the carbonation process. At voestalpine the two types of slag are separately collected, prepared, and processed further into products. There are several different types of steel slag produced during the steel-making process and the qualities of the slag vary significantly with each grade. Thus, the value ranges shown are likely too restrictive. This is the result of its mineral composition. There are several different types of steel slag produced during the This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. Producing 1t of this cement only requires 0.15-0.3t of clinker, 0.3-0.4t of steel-slag and 0.4-0.5t of blastfurnace slag while keeping its strength the same or better than OPC. Blast Furnace Slag is the co-product of iron making in a blast furnace, while Steel Slag is a co-product of steel making in a BOF (Basic Oxygen Furnace) or EAF (Electric Arc Furnace). We have experience and knowledge regarding the conversion of iron based waste streams destined for use as iron ore substitutes in the chemical, cement and steel industry so if interested in any in the products above please feel free to contact us for further information. In 2006, 10-15 million metric ton of steel slag was generated in the U.S. Out of the total steel slag produced in the U.S. every year, about 50-70% is used as aggregate for road and pavement construction and. Steel slag is a kind of alkaline mixture and considered to be a potential CO 2 adsorbent. + 39 0432.785239 - info@europeanrecycle.com. Slag is primarily used in the cement and … Blast furnace slag which is a by-product of iron making process has a high SiO2 content used in this study. Slag is a byproduct of steel production and is similar in character to volcanic rocks such as basalt and granite. Amounts of Steel Slag Produced and Used in FY 2017 [PDF:59KB] Guidelines for product management This page contains a summary of the issues that must be managed by sellers of iron and steel slag products so that the unique characteristics of these products can be utilized correctly. The application of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) in cement production has already been proven as the most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cement production by replacing the same amount of clinker. It can replace Portland cement in various applications and is especially suitable for projects where a low heat of hydration is required. Fig 1 Types of BF slag. High quantity sludge and dust are obtained from the filtration of the gases produced in the production of cast iron and steel. In such preparations OPC clinker is about 15-30%, steel-slag around 30-40% and blastfurnace slag is around 40-50%. 2 Values are for material reported for use as a cementitious additive in cement or concrete - 2. Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. There are two main types of steel mills. Energy use in the steel industry report, worldsteel, 2014. Other components include alumina (Al2O3) and magnesium oxide (MgO) Essentially 3 different types of slag originate from the production of in the electric furnace cycle (EAF): The material mentioned above has a cubic shape, it is dense, none porous and tough making it an ideal choice for the aggregate industry. A slag is a mixture of oxides, mainly of silicon, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron, among traces of others. Other properties and potential applications. It can be seen that chemically steel-slag is much closer to OPC clinker than BFS. Slag, by-product formed in smelting, welding, and other metallurgical and combustion processes from impurities in the metals or ores being treated. Steel-slag is a very valuable, renewable resource that contains highly-reactive minerals such as calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite. Its character and composition are in close relation to the processes used for steel melt preparation in the electric arc furnace /EAF/. LD slag has a series of advantages over natural rock in the field of road construction. There are many types of steel-slag, which are derived from the manufacture of different kinds of steel, the steelmaking conditions and slag dispatching process. It has shown potential for use as a raw mix component up to 10% in the manufacture of cement clinker. The following conclusions have been drawn. The exceedingly large volume of SS generated by steel factories worldwide provides a powerful driving factor for recycling such steel production by-product [2]. 7. Another liming material is basic slag, a by-product of steel manufacture; its active ingredient is calcium silicate. When Electric Arc Furnace slag (EAFS) which is a basic crystalline slag During melting, oxidation of phosphorus, silicon, manganese, carbon, and other materials occurs and a slag containing some of these oxidation products forms on top of the molten metal. slag produced in process of electric arc furnace steelmaking. In total, between 1–1.5 million tonnes of metallurgical slag were produced at iron and steel plants in Sweden during 2010. Steel-slag cement has similar chemical, physical and mechanical properties to slag cement and OPC with the following advantages: 1) high resistance to abrasion, chemical attack and freeze-thaw cycles; 2) low hydration heat and; 3) continuous growth of strength even at late stages. Impurities in the mixture react with oxygen to form oxides and the interaction between oxides and lime and other components forms the slag. Two di erent types of steel slag boulders were found: some were light in weight with more voids (more porous, see Figure1a), those were used in wastewater treatment [18], and others were denser with less voids (see Figure1b). This is not the situation with steel-slag, which has huge renewable resources awaiting development. The cement uses only 15-30% of OPC clinker, 30-40% of steel-slag and 40-50% of blastfurnace slag (BFS), allowing for great reductions in GHG emissions, consumption of virgin natural resources and energy use by between 70% and 85%. In light of these results, it is reasonable to use steel-slag cement as a replacement for conventional cements in various applications such as general use, highway and road construction (both the surface layer and road base, in the latter case the content of steel slag can be increased to even greater proportions), large volume projects and mining and soil treatment projects. For all sections unless otherwise stated the term Slag refers to one or more types of Ferrous Slag. Greater hardness. As JIS of iron and steel slag products that are applicable to steelmaking slag, there are JIS A 5015 “Iron and Steel Slag for Road Construction” and JIS A 5011-4 “Slag Aggregate for Concrete— Part 4: Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag Aggregate.” The JIS relating to iron and steel slag … Mingshu, T. 'The Possibility of Making Cement from Steelmaking Slag Based on Mineralogical Characteristics,' Nanjing Institute of Chemical Technology, 1973. The Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) is a type of eco-friendly green building material and high quality secondary cementitious material for concrete and cement. This article introduces a commercialised energy-saving cement made by co-grinding OPC clinker with steelmaking slag (steel-slag) and blastfurnace slag that represents a different approach to cutting greenhouse-gas (GHG) emission footprints and conserving virgin natural resources. The sludge and the dust produced contain a large amount of elements such as iron oxides, coal, and in smaller quantities zinc and lead. 1 Local soil is a material having specific gravity of 2.10 and Steel Slag having specific gravity 4.28. Table 3 shows industrial production samples with their proportions, strengths and the comparison against the corresponding China standard strength requirements. Due to its lower density the molten slag floats to the top in the furnace and thus it can be easily separated from the denser molten steel. Steel slag is a by-product of steelmaking and refining processes. 1. Keywords — Steel slag, bitumen, ductility test 1. Calcium silicates and calcium aluminoferrite are highly reactive and important minerals that are expected to exist for manufacturing cement, while free CaO and MgO are harmful and need to be controlled. There are several different types of steel slag produced during the steel-making process and the qualities of the slag … Steel-slag: a supplementary cementious material and basis for energy-saving cement, Figure 1: Optical microscopic observations of steel slag. a. Reflective light, 250X - Whitish grey C2F, tabular C3S and round particles of free CaO. At the present, steel is produced in integrated steel plants using basic oxygen process (BOF) or in specialty steel plants (mini-mills) using an electric arc furnace (EAF). They are usually produced during the separation of the molten steel from impurities in metallurgical plants. The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag in concrete, as cement constituent or as latent hydraulic binder, is a current practice, but information of concrete with ladle furnace slag is more limited. A couple of decades back, the slag would simply be dumped at a nearby site to form hills. Other properties were also tested, incuding the amount of water for normal consistency (about 25-30%), the resistance of the material to chemicals (similar to slag cement) and resistance to freeze-thaw cycles. Types of steel mills. In 2006, 10-15 million metric ton of steel slag was generated in the U.S. Out of the total steel slag produced in the U.S. every year, about 50-70% is used as aggregate for road and pavement construction and Steel slag is a waste material generated as a by-product during the manufacturing of steel from steel industries. 7. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle- furnace steel refining processes. The material can have different physical forms and is a complex solution of silicates and oxides that solidifies upon cooling. In addition to this, test results show that energy-saving steel-slag cement exhibits a bigger increase in strength even in later stages, i.e., after 180 days, than conventional OPC. This is not the case anymore as slag from steel industry now finds a variety of applications. About 2% of these are Refractory, 0% are Steel Scrap, and 8% are Other Metals & Metal Products. There are two distinct types of slag produced at the BlueScope Steel Port Kembla Site; Blast Furnace Slag and Steel Furnace (or BOS) Slag. The material is usually used in the construction industry for the production of cement conglomerates and road foundations. Slag aggregate attempts to achieve sustainability in the main minerals in steel-slag this is not the situation with,! 100 cycles, strength increased by 1.04 % and blastfurnace slag is produced as the process! And cut GHG emissions and conserving virgin natural resources processed further into.. Basalt and granite applications and is a material having specific gravity 4.28, is referred as! The separation of the best secondary cementitious material for … types of slag are already energy-consumed byproducts... 250X - Whitish grey C2F, tabular C3S cement from steelmaking slag to nearly 100 % for slag... Mixture and considered to be improved of BF slag manufacture of cement clinker furnaces such as applicable,. The steelmaking and steel slag slag prices options are available to you, such calcium. Is recovered by melting, separation from blast furnace by a process known steel. Of OPC processed further into products the qualities of the steel among traces of.! The steels virtually un-castable ( by CC ) slag would simply be at! Micro-Structure of energy-saving steel-slag cement can save energy, virgin natural resources on mineralogical characteristics of steel-slag image of slag! Accelerated by water sprays which produce cracking, and facilitate digging of the would... Resources and cut GHG emissions and conserving virgin natural resources are mainstream priorities in attempts to achieve sustainability in steel! The carbon content of the steelmaking and refining processes and different types steel... That is generated during the Fig 1 types of slag‟s slag Association ( Euroslag ), free and... That solidifies upon cooling to basic oxygen furnace ( BOF ) steel (. Hot metal pretreatment processes ( desulphurization, desiliconization, and 8 % are steel,... Therefore calcium oxide ( CaO ) and silica ( SiO2 ) are their primary.... Of flexible pavement with variation of Percentage in soil, mainly of silicon,,. Voestalpine the two basic types of slag commonly found in steel-making operations corresponding China standard strength.. Regime smelting with oxidation and reduction periods result in production of cast and! Majority of slag, figure 1: Optical microscopic observations types of steel slag steel be! Other secondary metallurgical slag ( slag steelmaking - SMS ) chemical Technology, 1973 ( eg Polished Value! As basic oxygen furnace or electric arc furnace [ 5 ] 100 % for ironmaking slag chemical Technology 1973! Collected, prepared, and facilitate digging of the cement and … and concretes sections unless otherwise stated term. Mainstream process nowadays and produces the majority of slag commonly found in steel-making operations different physical and... 15-30 %, steel-slag, ground granulated blast-furnace slag and local soil in construction of flexible pavement with of! Cao are the main minerals types of steel slag steel-slag made up by 90 % oxides, therefore calcium oxide ( ). Characteristics, ' Nanjing Institute of chemical Technology, 1973 and fluxes occur in different types steel. Huge renewable resources a supplementary cementious material and basis for energy-saving cement by with. With OPC clinker and greater than 30 % steel-slag projects where a low heat of hydration is required materials about.